Update on 31.10.2016.
Evidence Based unbiased information
Definitions & Terminologies are like the name of a person. These provide a glimpse about the topic. Dealing with the topic, whether in the exam or in clinical practice, without a fair idea of the Definitions & Terminologies would be like talking to a person without knowing his/her name or background. Knowing the Definitions & Terminologies would be like being introduced to the topic before dealing with it as we do before dealing with a person.
The Definitions, Terminologies and Abbreviations in Gynaecology have been included here in an alphabetical order for ease of reference.
Ectopic presence of endometrial tissue within the myometrium
Adolescere = to grow (Latin)
Ambiguous genitalia due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Absence of menstruation for 6months, not due to pregnancy, in a woman of child-bearing age
(Amenorrhoea during pregnancy, lactation, before menarche and after menopause is physiological)
(Amenorrhoea during administration of drugs such as depoprovera or GnRH analogues is iatrogenic)
Only the lower parts of the Mullerian ducts fuse and it consists of two uterine horns, single or double cervix and vagina.
Complete Hydatidiform Mole (CHM)
No pubertal signs by 18 years
Ectopic pregnancy (EP)
Endometrioma (chocolate cyst)
Fibroid (myoma) – uterus
Fothergill’s (Manchester) operation
Serum prolactin concentration greater than 800 miu/l
Occurs due to failure in breakdown of the wall between the Mullerian and sinovaginal bulb (frequently misdiagnosed as imperforate hymen that is less common).
Anosmia or hyposmia with delayed pubertal development or primary amenorrhoea due to congenital absence of GnRH.
Lap & dye
Prolactinoma measuring more than 1cm in diameter
Menarche (onset of menstruation)
Men = month (Greek)
Arche = origin (Greek)
Prolactinoma measuring less than 1cm in diameter
Missed (delayed) miscarriage
Muller-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome
Absence of the uterus or presence of a rudimentary uterus due to failure of Mullerian duct development.
Paramesonephric duct (forms the fallopian tubes, uterus and upper 3/4th of vagina in the female)
Infrequent uterine bleeding at intervals between 6 weeks and 6 months.
Partial Hydatidiform Mole (PHM)
Presence of more than 10 follicles of 2-10mm in each ovary distributed peripherally with echogenic stroma on ultrasound scan.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome
It is characterised by amenorrhoea/oligomenorrhoea, hirsutism, infertility, obesity and polycystic ovaries and is associated with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperandrogenaemia.
(In women of reproductive age, the incidence of polycystic ovaries on ultrasound scan is about 20%, the incidence of polycystic ovarian syndrome is about 5-7%. The presence of polycystic ovaries on ultrasound scan does not necessarily mean the presence of polycystic ovarian syndrome.)
Pseudohermaphroditism – Female
Pseudohermaphroditism – Male
Thelarche (breast development) before the 8th year or menarche before the 10th year
Tumour of the prolactin producing cells in the anterior pituitary
Pubertas = adulthood (Latin)
Residual Trophoblastic Disease (RTD)
Resistant ovary syndrome
Ovarian follicles temporarily unresponsive to optimal concentration of gonadotrophins.
Retroponation (retroposition) of the uterus
Retroflexion of the uterus
Retroversion of the uterus
Absence of menstruation for 6 months, not due to pregnancy, during the reproductive age
Secondary amenorrhoea due to failure of the anterior pituitary function as a consequence of necrosis due to hypovolaemic shock (e.g. postpartum haemorrhage).
TAH + BSO
Testicular feminisation syndrome
Transformation zone of the cervix
Triad of endometriosis
Develops from only one Mullerian duct and consists of the uterus and one Fallopian tube
Urinary stress incontinence
Develops due to complete failure of fusion of the Mullerian ducts and consists of two uteri and cervices.
Mesonephric duct (forms the vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, trigone of the bladder and part of prostatic urethra in the male)
© Dr Sudipta Paul, themedideas.com, 2013