Best Examination Tips: Medcase, Interesting Medical Cases and Pictures

  • Sunday, July 7th, 2013

Case 11/Picture 13 (13.12.2013.) Could you identify the medical condition?

World's fattest woman

Answer

This is a picture of super obesity in a woman. She was one of the fattest woman in the world with her heaviest weight being 1,036 lbs.

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. People are considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person’s weight in kilograms by the square of the person’s height in metres, exceeds 30 kg/m2. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnoea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis etc. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food energy intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic predisposition, although a few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medicines or psychiatric illness. Evidence to support the view that some obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is limited; on average obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass. Dieting and physical exercise are the mainstays of treatment for obesity. Diet quality can be improved by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods such as those high in fat and sugars, and by increasing the intake of dietary fibre. Anti-obesity drugs may be taken to reduce appetite or inhibit fat absorption together with a suitable diet. If diet, exercise and medication are not effective, a gastric balloon may assist with weight loss, or bariatric surgery may be performed to reduce stomach volume and/or bowel length, leading to earlier satiation and reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food. Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adults and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. Obesity is stigmatised in much of the modern world (particularly in the Western world), though it was widely perceived as a symbol of wealth and fertility at other times in history, and still is in some parts of the world. In 2013, the American Medical Association classified obesity as a disease.

References

1. WHO 2000

2. Haslam DW, James WP (2005). “Obesity”. Lancet 366(9492): 1197–209.

3. Kushner, Robert (2007). Treatment of the Obese Patient (Contemporary Endocrinology). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. p. 158.

4. Adams JP, Murphy PG (July 2000). “Obesity in anaesthesia and intensive care”Br J Anaesth 85 (1): 91–108.

5. NICE 2006 p.10–11

6. Imaz I, Martínez-Cervell C, García-Alvarez EE, Sendra-Gutiérrez JM, González-Enríquez J (July 2008). “Safety and effectiveness of the intragastric balloon for obesity. A meta-analysis”. Obes Surg 18 (7): 841–6.

7. Barness LA, Opitz JM, Gilbert-Barness E (December 2007). “Obesity: genetic, molecular, and environmental aspects”.American Journal of Medical Genetics 143A (24): 3016–34.

8. Woodhouse R (2008). “Obesity in art: A brief overview”Front Horm Res. Frontiers of Hormone Research36: 271–86.

9. Pollack, Andrew (June 18, 2013). “A.M.A. Recognizes Obesity as a Disease”The New York Times. Archived fromthe original on June 18, 2013. 10. Weinstock, Matthew (June 21, 2013). “The Facts About Obesity”H&HNAmerican Hospital Association.

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