G-Y in Gynaecology: Anatomy – themedideas Facts & Figures

  • Saturday, June 8th, 2013

Updated on 31.10.2016.

Evidence Based unbiased information

The Gynaecological anatomy is discussed here in an objective style with bullet points highlighting the important facts to make it easy to remember and reproduce in the examinations, the MCQ examinations in particular. Mnemonics have been devised for lists to help the readers. As many facts as possible have been included to make it comprehensive. These facts would be useful in day to day practice as well.


* Objective style

* Bullet points

* Important facts highlighted in bold

* Mnemonics

* Comprehensive but short and crisp

Exam pic 2

Female Reproductive Organs include:

▪ External genitalia – the Vulva

▪ Internal genitalia – the Vagina, the Uterus, the Fallopian tubes and the Ovaries (VUFO)

▪ Accessory organs – the Breasts


Some of the examples

The Vulva

* The Vulva has the following parts (ML2C V3 BEP) :

Mons veneris or pubis

Labia majora

Labia minora


* Labia Majora

▪ Structures of labia majora (SMFM):

~ Keratinized skin with hair follicles, sebaceous and sweat glands (some of the latter are large, coiled and specialised called apocrine glands)

~ Tunica dartos labialis (thin muscle layer)

▪ Labia majora are homologus to … in the male.

▪ Apocrine glands

~ Only found in the … and vulva

▪ Posterior Commissure – The connecting fold of skin between posterior ends of the labia majora

* Labia Minora (nymphae)

▪ Anteriorly, they divide and unite infront and behind the clitoris after enclosing it forming the prepuce and  respectively


~ Sebaceous and apocrine glands. Fat and …are absent.

▪ Become erectile on sexual activity

* Clitoris

▪ Length 2 to 2.5 cm


~ Glans: Rounded, consisting of erectile tissues covered with sensitive stratified squamous epithelium (no … glands)

Most sensitive part of the vulva …and has important role in the orgasm in female

* Vestibule of the Vagina

▪ Derived from the Latin vestibulam meaning a forecourt or a hall next to the entrance

▪ Urethral labia

▪ Vestibular fossa

▪ Fossa navicularis – The depression between the … and hymen found only in the …

* Hymen

▪ Tear is most common posteriorly or posterolaterally (not a very reliable sign of …)

▪ Tears could occur due to …

Carunculae myrtiformes

* Vestibular Bulb

Commisure of the bulbs is the …

* Bartholin’s Glands

▪ Lies …in the posterior third of the labium majus (in the superficial perineal pouch)

▪ Lobulated and racemose, the acini lined by …cells

The duct orifice is normally …

▪ Homologus to the … in the male

* External Urethral Meatus

…opens on either side just inside the external urethral meatus.

* Blood supply of the Vulva

▪ Arterial (IEP)

Venous drainage (IVL)

* Lymphatic drainage of the Vulva (SDI EII)

* Nerve supply of the Vulva

▪ Somatic (PIGP)

▪ Autonomic

The Uterus

* The most fixed part of the uterus is …

* The endocervix is covered by a single layer of tall columnar cells which are ciliated on the … but not in the…

Intrinsic arterial supply (ARBS)…

* Collateral arterial circulation of the female pelvis…

* Hepatic metastasis from genital carcinoma occurs through…

* Ratio of the cervix to corpus

▪ Intrauterine life …

▪ Before puberty …

▪ At puberty …

▪ In adult life …

* The uterus of a 9-year-girl is similar to that of…

* Cochleate uterus …

* Uterus masculinus…

*Uterine transplantation…

 The Fallopian Tubes

* Length…

* There are about … fimbriae

* Hydatids of Morgagni

* The extrauterine part of the Fallopian tube has peritoneal covering except …

* The surface epithelium consists of … cells (50-60%)… cells (20-30%) and … cells (10-30%).

* Arterial supply (UO)

▪ Medial ⅓ rd …

▪ Lateral ⅓ rd …

▪ Middle ⅓ rd …

* Veins drain into the

* Functions (OCFN)

* Develops from the …

* It is homologus to the …in the male.

The Ovary

* …only organ in the abdomen without …

* The ovary becomes displaced during …, and probably never again returns to its original position.

* In the erect posture the long axis of the ovary is …

* …is called “white line”.

* For each ovum undergoing ovulation about … ovarian follicles start development and become atretic.

* Follicular maturation is influenced by …

* Follicular development depends on …

* …Corpus luteum of pregnancy (verum) remains functional upto…

The Urinary Bladder

* The characteristics of the Superficial trigonal muscle includes

relatively …

made of … muscle bundles

devoid of …

has less … supply

ends distally in the … and is continuous wih the … proximally

no relevance to … function

may prevent … during voiding


1. The Vulva

2. The Vagina

3. The Uterus

4. The Fallopian Tubes

5. The Ovary

6. The Ligaments

7. The Pelvic Floor

8. The Perineum

9. The Ureter

10. The Urinary Bladder

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© Dr Sudipta Paul, themedideas.com, 2013

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